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Rudolf Bauer. 1889-1953.

German World War I Officer. c. 1912. Charcoal drawing. 18 1/3 x 6 5/8 (sheet 18 7/8 x 7). Drawn on cream laid paper watermarked "France". Signed lower left; estate stamp verso. Housed in a 26 x 14-inch cream-colored archival mat The soldier is wearing a spiked helmet. $500.

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Biographical chronology (courtesy of Steven Lowy, Portico New York).

1889. Rudolf Bauer, born in Lindenwald, Germany, the son of an engineer.

1890. Hilla Rebay von Ehrenweisen is born in Strasbourg, Alsace.

1904-1910. Bauer is living in Berlin and is already a published cartoonist. Studies at the Academy of Fine Arts, Berlin.

1912. Bauer meets the art dealer and promoter of the avant-garde Herwarth Walden, who founds the Der Sturm Gallery. In subsequent years, one-man exhibitions are organized for Kandinsky, Bauer, Klee, Chagall and many other artists.

1915. Bauer becomes member of "Der Sturm" and begins to be represented in its group exhibitions. Bauer meets the 25 year-old Baroness Hilla Rebay von Ehrenweisen, an art student and daughter of an aristocratic Prussian officer.

1917. Bauer's first one-man exhibition at Der Sturm Gallery, Berlin with 120 works. From then on participation, in 80 exhibitions with the group "Der Sturm."

1918. Bauer's theoretical essay "The Cosmic Movement" Der Sturm Gallery, Berlin. One-man exhibition.

1920 Der Sturm Gallery, Berlin. One-man exhibition. Georg Kleis Kusthandel, Copenhagen. Group exhibition, Bauer, Kandinsky. Bauer is co-founder of the "Novembergruppe" in Berlin, with Otto Freundlich, Max Pechstein and Rudolf Belling.

1921. McDowell Club, New York City, Société Anonyme. Group exhibition. Worcester Art Museum, Massachusetts. Group exhibition of Société. Theoretical essay "Manifesto of Painting," Berlin. Many of his graphics reproduced in "Monatsschrift fur Kultur und die Kunste" by "Der Sturm." Bauer invited to publish lithograph in Bauhaus portfolio.

1923. Vassar College, New York, 26th exhibition of Société. "Der Sturm" publishes its monumental 175 page volume, marking the milestone event of the 150th exhibition since it's founding. Three Bauer works are reproduced.

1926. "Grosse Berliner Kunstaustellung." in Berlin. One-man exhibition.

1927. Royal Palace, Berlin. One-man exhibition. Mrs Solomon Guggenheim who was attempting to help a newly-arrived German painter, the Baroness Hilla Rebay, receive portrait commissions, introduces her to her husband Solomon Guggenheim. The following year, he commissions Rebay to paint his portrait. Rebay had a profound influence on Guggenheim.

1928. Kandinsky meets Bauer in Berlin.

1929. Bauer founds his own museum in Berlin, "Das Geistreich", for exhibitions of Non-objective paintings. This was the West's first museum of Non-objective art. Hilla Rebay persuades the Guggenheims to visit the Das Geistreich gallery. This visit with the artists reinforces Solomon Guggenheim's passion for Non-objective art.

1932. Bauer launches an exhibition at Das Geistreich titled "Werke von Kandinsky und Bauer." This would be followed by one-man exhibitions of other artists, such as Hilla Rebay. Preoccupied with left-wing politics, and perhaps fearful of his fate under the Nazis, Walden closes Der Sturm Gallery and leaves for Russia.

1933. Museum of Modern Art, New York, "Modern European Art" Rudolf Bauer written up and a painting reproduced in the bulletin of the Museum of Modern Art, #2 October, 1933.

1934.Museum of Modern Art, New York, "Modern Works of Art." Group exhibition.

1935. Publication, in Berlin, of Bauer's manifesto "Eppure si Muove" (And Still It Moves.)

1937. Bauer's first visit to America. Gibbes Memorial Art Gallery, Charleston, South Carolina. Exhibition of the Guggenheim Collection on Non-objective painting. Represented by 60 paintings and watercolors. Arts Club of Chicago. "Paintings of Rudolf Bauer from the Solomon Guggenheim Collection." Musee Jeu de Paume, Paris. One-man exhibition. Painting purchased for their permanent collection. Galerie Chanth, Paris "Innovation, Une Nouvelle Ere Artistique," Galerie Chanth, Paris. All of the works derive from the collection of Solomon R. Guggenheim. Bauer's "Points" (1936) is reproduced in color on the catalogue's cover. Within the catalogue are four colorplates of Kandinsky's works and seven colorplates of Bauer's works. Guggenheim acquires from Bauer, Paul Klee's "Dance You Monster to My Soft Song!" (1922)

1938. Arrested by the Nazis and put into a concentration camp. Gibbes Memorial Art Gallery, Charleston, South Carolina. Exhibition of the Solomon R. Guggenheim Collection. Bauer is represented by 95 paintings.

1939. Baltimore Museum of Art, Baltimore, Maryland. Exhibition of the Solomon R. Guggenheim Collection of Non-objective painting. The exhibition is accompanied by a 182 page catalogue which serves as a handbook of the complete collection which now comprises 415 non-objective works and 309 works which are described as "with an object." The catalogue reveals 215 Bauer works in the collection and 103 Kandinskys, making the Guggenheim Foundation the largest repository of "Bauers" in the world and by far the largest collection of "Kandinskys" in the United States. Galerie Charpentier, Paris. First exhibition 2nd series, "Le Salon des Realities Nouvelles." Bauer released from concentration camp through Solomon Guggenheim, Hilla Rebay and Filippo Tommaso Marinetti (innovator of the Futurist Movement). Bauer returns to America where he remains the rest of his life.

1940. Bauer signs the now infamous "contract" which consequently holds him to giving the Guggenheim Foundation all works done in the future and which provides him with interest income rather than a lump sum payment. Bauer seeks legal counsel and proceeds to litigate against Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation for what he considers grossly unjust compensation for the productivity to come. A retroactive clause coupled with future clause described above, deterred him from selling any work. The Guggenheim/Bauer contract still in litigation Bauer presumable stops painting so that his new works will not potentially become the property of the Foundation. This inactivity apparently continues for this reason for the rest of his life.

1941. The San Diego Art Gallery, California. Loan exhibition from the Solomon Guggenheim Museum. This exhibition also travelled to Massilon, Ohio and Springfield, Massachusetts.

1942. Dallas Art Museum. Loan exhibition from the Solomon Guggenheim Museum. Pennsylvania State Center. Loan exhibition from the Solomon Guggenheim Museum.

1943. Upon Rebay's urging, Solomon R. Guggenheim commisions Frank Lloyd Wright to design a museum for the Foundation. This infuriates Bauer who was not consulted despite the fact that Guggenheim had promised to hire a German (Bauhaus?) architect. Bauer marries his maid, Louise Barry, apparently angering Hilla Rebay who aspired to marrying Bauer despite her close relationship with Guggenheim.

1944. The Art's Club, Washington D.C. Exhibition from the Solomon Guggenheim Museum.

1945. Everhart Museum, Scranton, Pennsylvania. Loan exhibition from the Solomon Guggenheim Museum. It is during this period that Solomon Guggenheim officiates the burning of the presumably hundreds of copies of the five Guggenheim catalogues. All five have color reproductions of Bauer's paintings, including Bauer's color covers. This clearly reveals the extent of the Bauer holdings which accumulated over the years prior to 1940. (As recalled by Louise Svendson to D. Karshan in July 1981).

1947. "Le Salon des Realities Nouvelles," Paris. Exhibition travels to Mannheim and Zurich.

1948. Solomon Guggenheim Museum, New York . "Permanent Collection." Group Exhibition.

1949. Solomon Guggenheim Museum, New York . "Tenth Anniversary" Group Exhibition.

1952. Solomon Guggenheim Museum, New York . "Evolution to Non-objectivity," Group Exhibition. With the death of Solomon R., Guggenheim, his widow is partly responsible for the replacement of Rebay by James Johnson Sweeny. Virtually all of the 215 Bauer works owned by the Museum are now relegated to the storage area of the Museum.

1953. Bauer dies at his home in Deal, New Jersey.

1963. Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York. "Evolution to Non-objectivity." Group Exhibition .

1967. Hilla Rebay dies. Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York. "Seven Decades A Selection." Group Exhibition .

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